1. Adamson, J, Beswick, A. and Ebrahim, S. Stroke and Disability Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases Vol 13, No. 4 2004.
  2. Ageymang C & Bhopal R. Is the blood pressure of people from African origin adults in the UK higher or lower than that in the European origin white people? A review of cross sectional data. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2003; 17(8
  3. Alderman M H, Cohen H, Madhavan S. Dietary sodium intake and mortality: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Lancet. 1998;351:781-5.
  4. Alderman M H, Madhavan S, Cohen H, Sealey J E, Laragh J H. Low urinary sodium is associated with greater risk of myocardial infarction among treated hypertensive men. Hypertension. 1995;25:1144-52.
  5. Alzheimers Society. March 2010.  [accessed 3/6/2010]
  6. Alzheimers Society. 2010. [ accessed 3/6/2010]
  7. Antonios, T.F. and G.A. MacGregor, Salt--more adverse effects. Lancet, 1996. 348(9022): p. 250-1.
  9. Beard TC. The dietary guideline with great therapeutic potential. Australian Journal of Primary Health. 2008. 14(3). 120-131
  10. Beevers DG, Lip GY, Blann AD: Salt intake and Helicobacter pylori infection. J Hypertension. 2004. 22 (8):1475-1477
  11. Bibbins-domingo K, Chertow GM, Coxson  PG, Lightwood JM, Pletcher MJ, Goldman L. Projected Effect of Dietary Salt Reductions on Future Cardiovascular Disease. New England journal of medicine. 2010. 10.1056/NEJMoa0907355
  12. Blackwood Am, Sagnella GA, Cook DG and Cappuccio FP. Urinary calcium excretion, sodium intake, and blood pressure in a multi-ethnic population: results of the Wandsworth Heart and Stroke Study. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2001;15:229-237
  13. Blood Pressure Association. 2008. What Blood Pressure can do to you. [accessed 07/08/09] (opens new webpage)
  14. Borghi L, Schianchi T, Meschi T, Guerra A, Allegri F, Maggiore U, Novarini A. Comparison of two diets for the prevention of recurrent stones in diopathic hypercalciuria. The New England Journal of Medicine.  2002;346(2):77-84
  15. Blood Pressure Association News. 07/09/2009. Could you be the one in three at risk of the silent killer?
  16. Burney P: A diet rich in sodium may potentiate asthma. Epidemiologic evidence for a new hypothesis. Chest 91:143S-148S, 1987.
  17. Calabrese, E.J. and R.W. Tuthill, The Massachusetts blood pressure study, part 3. Experimental reduction of sodium in drinking water: Effect on blood pressure. Toxicology & Industrial Health, 1985. 1(1): p. 19-34. (abstract only
  18. Cappuccio F P, Markandu N D, Carney C, Sagnella G A, MacGregor G A. Double-blind randomised trial of modest salt restriction in older people. Lancet. 1997;350:850-4.
  19. Cappuccio FP, Kalaitzidis R, Duneclift S, Eastwood JB. Unravelling the links between calcium excretion, salt intake, hypertension, kidney stones and bone metabolism. Journal of Nephrology. 2000;13:169-177
  20. Cappuccio FP, Meilahn E, Zmuda JM, Cauley JA. High Blood Pressure and bone-mineral loss in elderly white women: a prospective study. The Lancet. 1999;354:971-75
  21. Cappuccio FP. Ethnicity and cardiovascular risk: variation in people of African ancestry and South Asian origin. Journal of Human Hypertension. 1997; 11, 571-576.
  22. Cappuccio FP et al. Hypertension and ethnicity: prevalence and level of detection and management in the community in England. American Journal of Hypertension. 1997; 10, 22A
  23. Carbone LD, Barrow KD, Bush AJ, Boatright MD, Michelson JA, Pitts KA, Pintea VN, Kang AH, Watsky MA. Effects of a low sodium diet on bone metabolism. J Bone Miner Metab. 2005. 23(6). 506-13
  24. Carey OJ, Locke C, Cookson JB: Effect of alterations of dietary sodium on the severity of asthma in men. Thorax 48:714-718, 1993.
  25. Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E, Buring JE, Rexrode KM, Kumanyika SK Appel LJ & Whelton PK. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOTP). BMJ, Apr 2007; 334: 885; doi: 10.1136/bmj 39147.604896.55
  26. Cooper, R., et al., A randomized trial on the effect of decreased dietary sodium intake on blood pressure in adolescents. J Hypertens, 1984. 2(4): p. 361-366.
  27. Cooper, R., et al., The association between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure in children. Circulation, 1980. 62(1): p. 97-104.
  28. Corbo GM, Forastiere F, Sario MD, et al: Wheeze and Asthma in Children: Associations With Body Mass Index, Sports, Television Viewing, and Diet. Epidemiology 19:DOI: 10.1097/EDE.1090b1013e3181776213, 2008.
  29. Cutler JA, Follmann D, Allender PS: Randomized trials of sodium reduction: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 65:643S-651S, 1997.
  30. De Courcy, S., et al., Urinary sodium excretion in 4-6 year old children: a cause for concern? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 1986. 292(6533): p. 1428-1429.
  31. Cutler JA, Roccella EJ. Hypertension editorial commentary: Salt reduction for preventing hypertension and cardiovascular disease - a population approach should intake should include children (2006). Hypertension 48: 818-819.
  32. de Wardener H E. Salt reduction and cardiovascular risk: the anatomy of a myth. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13:1-4.
  33. Denton D, Weisinger R, Mundy N I, et al. The effect of increased salt intake on blood pressure of chimpanzees. Nat Med. 1995;1:1009-16.
  34. Devine A, Criddle RA, Dick IM, et al: A longitudinal study of the effect of sodium and calcium intakes on regional bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 62:740-745, 1995.
  36. Du Cailar G, Ribstein J, Daures JP, et al: Sodium and left ventricular mass in untreated hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Am J Physiol 263:H177-181, 1992.
  37. du Cailar G, Ribstein J, Mimran A. Dietary sodium and target organ damage in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:222-9.
  38. Elliott P, Stamler J, Nichols R, Dyer A R, Stamler R, Kesteloot H, Marmot M. Intersalt revisited: further analyses of 24 hour sodium excretion and blood pressure within and across populations. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. Bmj. 1996;312:1249-53.
  39. Ellison, R.C., et al. Effects on blood pressure of a decrease in sodium use in institutional food preparation: the Exeter-Andover Project. J Clin Epidemiol, 1989. 42(3): p. 201-8. (abstract only)
  40. European Commission. Labelling: Competitiveness, Consumer Information and Better Regulation for the EU. A DG SANCO Consultative Document. February 2006.
  41. Evans CEL, Chughtai AY, Blumsohn A, Giles M, Eastell R. The effect of dietary sodium on calcium metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997;51:394-399. (review article)
  42. Ferrara LA, de Simone G, Pasanisi F, et al: Left ventricular mass reduction during salt depletion in arterial hypertension. Hypertension 6:755-759, 1984.
  43. Evans CEL, Cleghorn CL, Greenwod DC, Cade JE. A comparison of British School meals and packed lunches from 1990 to 2007:a meta-analysis by lunch type. British Journal of Nutrition. 2010. 104; 474-478
  44. Foldstein CA. Salt intake, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Journal of human hypertension. 2000;16(suppl1):S48-S51
  45. Forman D, Newell DG, Fullerton F, et al: Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. BMJ 302:1302-1305, 1991.
  46. Forte J G, Miguel J M, Miguel M J, et al.. Salt and blood pressure: a community trial. J Hum Hypertens. 1989;3:179-84. (abstract only)
  47. Fratiglioni L et al. Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Major findings from the Kungsholmen project. Physiology & Behaviour.2007; 92;, 98-104
  48. Geleijnse J M, Hofman A, Witteman J C, et al. Long-term effects of neonatal sodium restriction on blood pressure. Hypertension. 1997;29:913-7
  49. Geleijnse, J.M., D.E. Grobbee, and A. Hofman, Sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure change in childhood. Bmj, 1990. 300(6729): p. 899-902.
  50. Gillum, R.F., P.J. Elmer, and R.J. Prineas, Changing sodium intake in children. The Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study. Hypertension, 1981. 3(6): p. 698-703.
  51. Graudal N A, Galloe A M, Garred P. Effects of sodium restriction on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride: a meta-analysis. Jama. 1998;279:1383-91.
  52. Gregory J, L.S., Bates CJ, Prentice A, Jackson L, Smithers G, Wenlock R, Farron M., National Diet and Nutrition Survey: young people aged 4 to 18 years. Vol. 1: Report of the diet and nutrition survey. 2000, London: The Stationery Office. 271-336.
  53. Gress TW, Nieto J, Shahar E, Wofford MR, Brancati FL. 2000. Hypertension and antihypertensive therapy as risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The New England Journal of Medicine. 342(13);905-912
  54. Guardian. 08/10/08.
  55. Hansen ML, Gunn PW, Kaelber DC. Under diagnosis of hypertension in children and adolescents. JAMA. 2007. 298(8). 874-879
  56. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers S G, et al Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet. 1998;351:1755-62
  57. Havas S, Dickinson BD, Wilson M. Journal of the American Medical Association commentary: The Urgent Need to Reduce Sodium Consumption (2007).  JAMA, September 26, 2007—Vol 298, No. 12 143
  58. He FJ, Burnier M, MacGregor G. Nutrition in Cardiovascular Disease: Salt in hypertension and heart failure. European Heart Journal. 2011.
  59. He FJ, Marrero NM and MacGregor GA.Salt and blood pressure in children and adolescents (2007). Journal of Human Hypertension (2007), 1–8
  60. He FJ, Markandu NJ, MacGregor GA. Modest salt reduction lowers blood pressure in isolated systolic hypertension and combined hypertension. Hypertension. 2005. 46, 66-70
  61. He & MacGregor. Reducing Population Salt Intake Worldwide: From Evidence to Implementation. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 2010; 52:363-382
  62. He FJ & MacGregor GA. How Far Should Salt be Reduced? Hypertension (2003) 42: 1093-1099.
  63. He FJ, MacGregor GA. A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. Journal of human hypertension. 2008. 1-22
  64. He FJ & MacGregor GA. Importance of salt in determining blood pressure in children: meta-analysis of controlled trials (2006). Hypertension 48: 861-869.
  65. He F J, MacGregor G A. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Implications for public health. J Hum Hypertens. 2002;16:761-70.
  66. He F J, Markandu N D, MacGregor G A. Importance of the renin system for determining blood pressure fall with acute salt restriction in hypertensive and normotensive whites. Hypertension. 2001;38:321-5.
  67. He FJ and MacGregor GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure (review). H The Cochrane Library 2006 Issue 3.
  68. He FJ, MacGregor GA. Importance of determining blood pressure in children: Meta-analysis of controlled trials. Hypertension. 2006;48:861-869
  69. He FJ, Marciniak M, Visagie E, et al: Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure, urinary albumin, and pulse wave velocity in white, black, and Asian mild hypertensives. Hypertension 54: 482-488, 2009.
  70. He FJ, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA, et al: Effect of salt intake on renal excretion of water in humans. Hypertension 38:317-320, 2001.
  71. He FJ, Marrero NM, and MacGregor GA Salt Intake Is Related to Soft Drink Consumption in Children and Adolescents: A Link to Obesity?  Hypertension. 2008;51:629-634
  72. He, F.J. and G.A. MacGregor, Importance of salt in determining blood pressure in children: meta-analysis of controlled trials. Hypertension, 2006. 48(5): p. 861-9.
  73. He, F.J., et al., Effect of salt intake on renal excretion of water in humans. Hypertension, 2001. 38(3): p. 317-20.
  74. He FJ, Marciniak M, Markandu ND, Antonis TF, MacGregor GM. Effect of modest salt reduction on skin capillary rarefaction in white, black and Asian individuals with mild hypertension. Published online June 28, 2010.
  75. He F J, MacGregor G A. Fortnightly review: Beneficial effects of potassium. Bmj. 2001;323:497-501
  76. Heeg J E, de Jong P E, van der Hem G K, de Zeeuw D. Efficacy and variability of the antiproteinuric effect of ACE inhibition by lisinopril. Kidney Int. 1989;36:272-9
  77. Ho SC, Chen Y-M, Woo JLF, Leung SSF, Lam TH, Janus ED. Sodium is the leading dietary factor associated with urinary calcium excretion in Hong Kong Chinese adults. Osteoporosis International. 2001;12:723-731
  78. Hoffman IS, Cubeddu LX. Salt and the metabolic Syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009. 19(2). 123-128
  79. Hofman A, Hazebroek A, Valkenburg H A. A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn infants. Jama. 1983;250:370-3.
  80. Hooper L, Bartlett C, Davey Smith G, et al: Systematic review of long term effects of advice to reduce dietary salt in adults. BMJ 325:628-632, 2002.
  81. Howe, P.R.C., K.F. Jureidini, and R.M. Smith, Sodium and blood pressure in children - a short-term dietary intervention study. Proc Nutr Soc Aust, 1985. 10: p. 121-124.
  82. Hu G, Jousilahti P, Peltonen M, Lindström  J, Tuomilehto J.  Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in Finland. Diabetologia. 2005. 48: 1477–1483
  83. INTERSALT. Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. Bmj. 1988;297:319-28.
  84. Iso H, Shimamoto T, Yokota K, et al. [Changes in 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium in a community-based heath education program on salt reduction]. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 1999;46:894-903.
  85. James J, Thomas P, Cavan D, et al: Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 328:1237, 2004.
  86. Joossens JV, Hill MJ, Elliott P, et al: Dietary salt, nitrate and stomach cancer mortality in 24 countries. European Cancer Prevention (ECP) and the INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group. Int J Epidemiol 25:494-504, 1996
  87. Jula AM, Karanko HM: Effects on left ventricular hypertrophy of long-term nonpharmacological treatment with sodium restriction in mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Circulation 89:1023-1031, 1994.
  88. Karppanen H, Mervaala E: Sodium intake and hypertension. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 49:59-75, 2006.
  89. Kempner W. Treatment of Hypertensive Vascular Disease with Rice Diet. American Journal of Medicine. 1948; 26, 545-577.
  90. Kidney Research UK. Renal Stones Fact Sheet
  91. Kortzinger, I., et al., Dietary underreporting: validity of dietary measurements of energy intake using a 7-day dietary record and a diet history in non-obese subjects. Ann Nutr Metab, 1997. 41(1): p. 37-44.
  92. Kupari M, Koskinen P, Virolainen J: Correlates of left ventricular mass in a population sample aged 36 to 37 years. Focus on lifestyle and salt intake. Circulation 89:1041-1050, 1994.
  93. Kurosawa M, Kikuchi S, Xu J, Inaba Y. Highly salted food and mountain herbs elevate risk of stomach cancer deaths in a rural area of Japan. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006. 21(11). 1681-168
  94. Lambert R & Hainaut P. Epidemiology of oesophagogastric cancer. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology. 2007;21(6):921-945
  95. Law MR, Frost CD, Wald NJ: By how much does dietary salt reduction lower blood pressure? III--Analysis of data from trials of salt reduction. BMJ 302:819-824, 1991.
  96. Levy D, Garrison RJ, Savage DD, et al: Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. N Engl J Med 322:1561-1566, 1990.
  97. Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, et al: Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 360:1903-1913, 2002.
  98. Liebson PR, Grandits GA, Dianzumba S, et al: Comparison of five antihypertensive monotherapies and placebo for change in left ventricular mass in patients receiving nutritional-hygienic therapy in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Circulation 91:698-706, 1995
  99. Lifton R P, Gharavi A G, Geller D S. Molecular mechanisms of human hypertension. Cell. 2001;104:545-56.
  100. Lifton R P. Molecular genetics of human blood pressure variation. Science. 1996;272:676-80.
  101. Lip GYH et al. Ethnicity and cardiovascular disease prevention in the United Kingdom: a practical approach to management. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2007; 21, 183-211
  102. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL: Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 357:505-508, 2001.
  103. MacGregor G A. Nutrition and blood pressure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 1999;9:6-15.
  104. MacGregor G A, de Wardener H E, Idiopathic edema., in Diseases of the kidney., G.C. Schrier RW, Editor. 1997, Little Brown and Company.: Boston. p. 2343-2352.
  105. MacGregor G A, Markandu N D, Best F E, et al. Double-blind randomised crossover trial of moderate sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet. 1982;1:351-5.
  106. MacGregor G A, Markandu N D, Sagnella G A, et al. Double-blind study of three sodium intakes and long-term effects of sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet. 1989;2:1244-7.
  107. MacGregor G A, Markandu N D, Singer D R, et al. Moderate sodium restriction with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in essential hypertension: a double blind study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987;294:531-4.
  108. MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet. 1990;335:765-74.
  109. MacMahon S. Blood pressure and the prevention of stroke. J Hypertens Suppl. 1996;14:S39-46
  110. Martin, L.J., et al., Comparison of energy intakes determined by food records and doubly labelled water in women participating in a dietary-intervention trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 1996. 63(4): p. 483-90.
  111. Matkovic V, Ilich JZ, Andon MB, Hseih LC, Tzagournis MA. Urinary calcium, sodium and bone mass of young females. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1995. 62:417-42
  113. Menieres Society.2009 . [accessed 07/09/09]
  114. Mertz, W., et al., What are people really eating? The relation between energy intake derived from estimated diet records and intake determined to maintain body weight. Am J Clin Nutr, 1991. 54(2): p. 291-5.
  115. Mickleborough TD, Fogarty A: Dietary sodium intake and asthma: an epidemiological and clinical review. Int J Clin Pract 60:1616-1624, 2006.
  116. Mickleborough TD, Lindley MR, Ray S: Dietary salt, airway inflammation, and diffusion capacity in exercise-induced asthma. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:904-914, 2005.
  117. Midgley J P, Matthew A G, Greenwood C M, Logan A G. Effect of reduced dietary sodium on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Jama. 1996;275:1590-7.
  118. Miller ER, erlinger TP, Young DR, John M, Charleston J, Rhodes D, Wason SK, Appol SJ. Results of the diet, exercise and weight loss intervention trial (DEW-IT). Hypertension. 2002; ;40; 612-618.
  119. Mitchell M, Brunton NP, Wilkinson MG. Sensory acceptability of a reformulated reduced salt ready meal. Journal of food service. 2009. 20. 296-308
  120. MRC Human Nutrition Research. Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target.
  121. Nagata C, Takatsuka N, Shimizu N, Shimizu H. Sodium intake and risk of death from stroke in Japanese men and women. Stroke. 2004;35:1543-7.
  122. National Audit Office, 2005. Brain Damage: Faster access to better stroke care
  124. National Osteoporosis Society Figures, 2009
  125. National Statistics in 2001
  126. NHS Information Booklet (2006). Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England, 2006.
  127. NHS Fact Sheets: Chronic Kidney Disease, 2007
  128. NHS Fact Sheets: Kidney Disease. 2008
  129. NHS Fact sheet: Meniere's Disease. 2007
  130. Nordin CBE, Need AG, Morris HA. Horowitz M. The nature and significance of the relationship between urinary sodium and urinary calcium in women. The Journal of Nutrition. 1993;123:1615-1622
  131. O'Brien KO, Abrams SA, Stuff JE, Liang LK, Welch TR. Variables related to urinary calcium excretion in young girls. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. 1996;23(6):8-12
  132. Office of National Statistics Health Statistics Quarterly (12) Winter 2001 "Stroke incidence and risk factors in a population based cohort study"; Scottish Stroke Care Audit 2005/2006.
  133. Ogihara T, Asana T, Fujita T. 2003. Contribution of salt intake to insulin resistance associated with hypertension. Life Sciences. 2003;73:509-523
  134. Page L B, Damon A, Moellering R C, Jr. Antecedents of cardiovascular disease in six Solomon Islands societies. Circulation. 1974;49:1132-46.
  135. Page L B, Vandevert D E, Nader K, Lubin N K, Page J R. Blood pressure of Qash'qai pastoral nomads in Iran in relation to culture, diet, and body form. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34:527-38.
  136. Passmore P. Preventing dementia following a stroke. The Journal of Quality Research in Dementia. 2008;Issue 66
  137. Perry I J, Beevers D G. Salt intake and stroke: a possible direct effect. J Hum Hypertens. 1992;6:23-5.
  138. Persson, L.A., Dietary habits and health risks in Swedish children. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr, 1984. 38(4): p. 287-97.
  139. Pistelli, R., et al., Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children. Eur Respir J, 1993. 6(4): p. 517-22.
  140. Poulter N R, Khaw K T, Hopwood B E, et al. The Kenyan Luo migration study: observations on the initiation of a rise in blood pressure. Bmj. 1990;300:967-72.
  141. Primatesta P et al. Blood pressure levels and hypertension status among ethnic groups in England. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2000; 14, 143-148
  142. Reducing salt intake in populations - Report of a WHO Forum and Technical Meeting. (WHO, 2006)
  143. Rose, G., Strategy of prevention: lessons from cardiovascular disease. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 1981. 282(6279): p. 1847-51.
  144. Sacks F M, Svetkey L P, Vollmer W M, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:3-10.
  145. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2003) Salt and Health, The Stationery Office
  146. Sawaya, A.L., et al., Evaluation of four methods for determining energy intake in young and older women: comparison with doubly labeled water measurements of total energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr, 1996. 63(4): p. 491-9.
  147. Schmieder R E, Messerli F H, Garavaglia G E, Nunez B D. Dietary salt intake. A determinant of cardiac involvement in essential hypertension. Circulation. 1988;78:951-6.
  148. Schreuder MF, B.A., van Wijk JAE, Salt intake in children: increasing concerns? (Letter). Hypertension, 2007
  149. Shikata K, Kiyohara Y, Kubo M, Yonemoto K, Ninomiya T, Shirota T, Tanizaki Y, Doi Y, Tanaka K, Oishi Y, Matsumoto T, Iida M. A prospective study of dietary salt intake and gastric cancer incidence in a defined Japanese  population: The Hisayama study. International Journal of Cancer. 2006;119:196-201
  150. Singh R B, Suh I L, Singh V P et al. Hypertension and stroke in Asia : prevalence, control and strategies in developing countries for prevention. Journal of Human Hypertension 2000;14:749-763
  151. Staessen J, Bulpitt C J, Fagard R, et al. Salt intake and blood pressure in the general population: a controlled intervention trial in two towns. J Hypertens. 1988;6:965-73.
  152. Stewart R et al. Change in blood pressure and incident dementia. A 32 year prospective study. Hypertension. 2009; 54, 233-240
  153. St-Onge, M.P., K.L. Keller, and S.B. Heymsfield, Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights. Am J Clin Nutr, 2003. 78(6): p. 1068-1073.
  154. Strazullo P, D’Elia L, Kandala N-B, Cappuccio FP. Salt intake, Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies. British Medical Journal. 2009; 339:b4567doi:10.1136/bmj.b4567
  155. Strumylaite L, Zickute J, Dudzevicius J, Degval L. Salt preserved foods and risk of gastric cancer. Medicina (Kaunas). 2006. 42(2). 164-170
  156. Swift P A, Markandu N D, Sagnella G A, He F J, Macgregor G A. Modest Salt Reduction Reduces Blood Pressure and Urine Protein Excretion in Black Hypertensives. A Randomized Control Trial. Hypertension. 2005; 46:308-12.
  157. Taylor En, Fung TT, Curhan GC. DASH-style diet associates with reduced risk for kidney stones. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009. 20(10). 2253-9
  158. The Health Survey for England- The Health of Minority Groups 1999 (
  159. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high normal blood pressure. The trials of hypertension prevention, phase II. The trials of hypertension prevention collaborative research group. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:657-67.
  160. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels. Results of the trials of hypertension prevention , phase I. JAMA 1992;267:1213-20.
  161. Tsugane S. Salt, salted food intake, and risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Science. 2005;96(1):1-6 (review article)
  162. Tsugane, S., et al., Salt and salted food intake and subsequent risk of gastric cancer among middle-aged Japanese men and women. Br J Cancer, 2004. 90(1): p. 128-34.
  163. Tuomilehto J, Jousilahti P, Rastenyte D, Moltchanov V, Tanskanen A, Pietinen P, Nissinen A. Urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular mortality in Finland: a prospective study. Lancet. 2001;357:848-51.
  164. Tuomilehto J, Puska P, Nissinen A, et al. Community-based prevention of hypertension in North Karelia, Finland. Ann Clin Res. 1984;16 Suppl 43:18-27.
  165. Vartiainen E, Sarti C, Tuomilehto J, Kuulasmaa K. Do changes in cardiovascular risk factors explain changes in mortality from stroke in Finland ? Bmj. 1995;310:901-4.
  166. UKPDS. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Bmj. 1998;317:703-13
  167. Verhave J C, Hillege H L, Burgerhof J G, Janssen W M, Gansevoort R T, Navis G J, de Zeeuw D, de Jong P E. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects. J Intern Med. 2004;256:324-30.
  168. Vollmer et al. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure; subgroup analysis of the DASH sodium trial Annals of Internal Medicine 2001; 135 (12), 1019-1028.
  169. Wang C, Yuan Y, Hunt RH. The Association between Helicobacter pylori infection and early gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. The American
  170. Wang X, Terry P,  Yan H. Stomach  cancer in 67 Chinese counties: evidence of interaction between salt consumption and helicobacter pylori infection. Asia pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2008;17(4):644-650
  171. Whelton P K, Kumanyika S K, Cook N R, et al. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: results from phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:652S-660S.
  172. WHO. Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva . 2003
  173. Wigertz, K., et al., Racial differences in calcium retention in response to dietary salt in adolescent girls. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005. 81(4): p. 845-50.
  174. Woo J, Kwok T, Leung J, Tang N. Dietary intake, blood pressure and osteoporosis. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2009; 23:451-455
  175. World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. World Health Organisation, 2002.
  176. Xie JX, Sasaki S, Joossens JV, et al: The relationship between urinary cations obtained from the INTERSALT study and cerebrovascular mortality. J Hum Hypertens 6:17-21, 1992.